Yonderland is a British sitcom television series that has been broadcasting on Sky 1 since 10 November 2013. It was produced by Sioned Wiliam, and is created by, written by and stars the main performers from CBBC’s series Horrible Histories.

33-year-old Debbie Maddox (Martha Howe-Douglas) becomes increasingly bored with her life as a suburban stay-at-home mother until an elf (Mathew Baynton) appears from a portal in her cupboard, insisting that she’s the „chosen one“ destined to save Yonderland. Reluctantly, Debbie agrees to meet with the Elders of the realm… only to discover that they’ve lost the scroll that explains what the chosen one is supposed to do. As it turns out, Yonderland is a silly, magical place, threatened by the evil Negatus (Simon Farnaby). It will take all of Debbie’s resources to complete each week’s quest in time to pick up her children from school.

On 22 March 2013, Sky1’s Lucy Lumsden announced Yonderland, saying: „We are delighted to give the incredibly talented Horrible Histories cast the opportunity to write and star in a brand new show for the whole family on Sky1.“ The show was co-produced by Working Title Films. Principal filming under former HH director Steve Connelly began the following May.

The show initially grew out of the desire of its creators (Baynton, Farnaby, Howe-Douglas, Howick, Rickard and Willbond) to continue working together after Horrible Histories ceased production in 2012. The new standalone troupe wanted to maintain the sketch-based, character-driven comedy style from their previous series. They quickly settled on the fantasy quest genre, with its emphasis on individual short vignettes within the larger plot, as the logical next step.

At the same time, Baynton and Willbond had been developing a film idea about an ordinary person dragged into a parallel universe – specifically, a nostalgic fantasy adventure using puppetry rather than more modern animation techniques, in the vein of Labyrinth and The NeverEnding Story.“ This concept in turn naturally lent itself to the casting of sole female troupe member Howe-Douglas as the central heroine, with her five male costars in multiple roles as the different characters she meets in each episode. In terms of writing together for the first time as a troupe, Howick noted to The Guardian that „[By now] we’re such a tight unit, we know exactly what the humour is, and what the tone is.“ Baynton agreed: „It just grew very nicely out of what happens when the six of us are together in a room.“

In keeping with the nostalgic, „lo-fi“ tone – and in the interest of creating a more richly populated, inventive and potentially surprising world – Yonderland features numerous Muppet-style puppet characters designed and built by longtime Jim Henson associates Baker Coogan. Explaining the decision to keep computer animation to a minimum (save for the portal to Yonderland itself), Rickard said: „Because you can make everything photo-realistic these days, it kind of takes the joy out of it. Even if it’s brilliant CGI, you still know it’s CGI … you know it’s not there, it’s not tangible, and it’s the same with comedy.“

The first series was considered a critical and popular success, earning solid ratings for its timeslot. On 30 June 2014, Sky announced that the show had been recommissioned for a second series, which was filmed in autumn of the same year and began airing in July 2015.

In January 2016 it was announced that Stephen Fry would be joining the cast of Yonderland, for the 3rd series, as „Cuddly Dick“, described in the Radio Times as „a mysterious returning elder“. Series 3 is due to launch on Sunday, 16th October 2016 on Sky1.

Yonderland met with generally positive reviews, most focussing on its uniquely all-ages nature and nostalgic callbacks to former fantasy classics. Writing in the Guardian, Sarah Hughes called the series „perfect family viewing“, summing it up as „both supremely silly and very clever indeed – the sort of frothy concoction that looks effortless but is actually very hard to get right… the writing is a wonderful mix of knowing and daft“, all of which earned it 16th place in the same paper’s ranking of the Top 30 TV shows of 2013. Den of Geek’s Rob Smedley called the show „joyously amusing… the clichés are magnificently well handled or hidden by some top gags and a cast who know just how to deliver them.“

The Radio Times named the show #28 in its own Top 40 year-end list, saying further of the show’s writer/creators that „Characters tended to appear once when they could each have had their own series; this gang have so many ideas and such skill in executing them that, in the long term, Python comparisons might not be out of place.“ Total Film magazine placed it at #25 in their Top 25 year-end list, agreeing that „It’s basically Labyrinth meets Monty Python. Yes, it’s THAT good. Though it’s essentially aimed at the kiddies, like all the best muppet-y stories, there are jokes for the adults, too.“ Entertainment website Cultbox UK named it their Best Comedy of the same year, „simply by virtue of being a genuinely funny comedy that the whole family can watch together… There’s something for everyone in the Horrible Histories team’s madcap fantasy-ribbing recipe of puppets, inventive characters, more puppets, and cheeky humour.“

The first series of Yonderland was released on Region Two DVD on 17 February 2014, by Universal Pictures UK. The second series was released November 2015.

Conn Smythe

Military Cross (World War I)

Constantine Falkland Cary Smythe, MC (February 1, 1895 – November 18, 1980) was a Canadian businessman, soldier and sportsman in ice hockey and horse racing. He is best known as the principal owner of the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1927 to 1961 and as the builder of Maple Leaf Gardens. As owner of the Leafs during numerous championship years, his name appears on the Stanley Cup eight times: 1932, 1942, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951 and 1962.

Smythe is also known for having served in both World Wars, organizing his own artillery battery in the Second World War. The horses of Smythe’s racing stable won the Queen’s Plate twice among 145 stakes race wins during his lifetime. Smythe started and ran a successful sand and gravel business. He was a big supporter of the Ontario Society for Crippled Children and the Variety Club and founded the Conn Smythe Foundation philanthropic organization.

Conn Smythe was born on February 1, 1895, in Toronto to Albert Smythe, an Irish Protestant from County Antrim who immigrated to Canada in 1889, and Mary Adelaide Constantine, an English woman. Mary and Albert were married in the 1880s while immigrating to Canada. Albert and Mary had a rocky marriage and did not live together for more than a few months at a time. Mary, who was known as Polly, was remembered by Conn as pretty, a drinker and troublemaker, while Albert was quiet, a vegetarian and a devoted member of Madame Blavatsky’s Theosophical movement. Albert Smythe was a charter member of the Theosophical Society of Canada in 1891, and edited its newsletter until the final years of his life.

Smythe’s first home was 51 McMillan Street, now known as Mutual Street, not far from the future site of Maple Leaf Gardens. He was the second of two children born to Mary and Albert. Conn had a sister, Mary, five years older, who died due to illness in 1903. The family was poor and moved several times during Smythe’s youth, the size of lodgings depending on Albert Smythe’s wages at the time. At one point, Albert and Conn moved to a house in Scarborough while Mary and Polly stayed on North Street. Conn’s mother Mary died in 1906, and Smythe attributes his mother’s drinking with making him a lifelong abstainer from alcohol. At age eleven Conn was christened and that was the first time that he insisted on Conn instead of his given name of Constantine. Albert and Conn became estranged after Albert began a new relationship with Jane Henderson. The two married in 1913 and had a daughter Moira.

Smythe first went to high school at Upper Canada College. He hated it, and after a year and a half he transferred to Jarvis Collegiate Institute. Smythe developed his athleticism there, playing on hockey, rugby football and basketball teams, playing on city championship teams in basketball and hockey in 1912. At the age of 16, Conn Smythe met Irene Sands, his future wife, after a football game against Parkdale Collegiate Institute, which she attended. Albert Smythe wanted his son to attend university after grade 12 but Smythe defied his father, bolting at age 17 to become a homesteader on 150 acres (61 ha) in Clute Township, near Cochrane, Ontario. After one summer building a home on the property only to have it destroyed by a devastating fire, Smythe changed his mind about living in the bush and he enrolled in engineering studies at the University of Toronto in the fall of 1912. There he played hockey as a centre, captaining the Varsity Blues men’s ice hockey team to the finals of the 1914 Ontario Hockey Association (OHA) junior championships and to the OHA junior championship the following year. The coach of the losing team in 1915 was Frank J. Selke, who years later would work for Smythe at Maple Leaf Gardens. Smythe also played on the University of Toronto football team, although not as a starter.

The First World War interrupted his studies. A week after winning the OHA championship in March 1915, Smythe and his eight teammates enlisted. Smythe recalled in his memoirs that he and several classmates tried to enlist at the beginning of the 1914–15 season, but were told to come back when they had beards. After securing a provisional rank of lieutenant with the 2nd (Ottawa) Battery, 8th Brigade, on July 17, he headed to the Royal School of Artillery in Kingston, Ontario, in August for five weeks of training. He made full lieutenant on September 11, and was able to get himself transferred to the 40th (Sportsmen’s) Battery of Hamilton, organized by publishing figure Gordon Southam, son of William Southam. The unit, with Smythe as team manager, organized a team to compete in the OHA’s senior league; they were one of four Toronto-based teams in the league in 1916. He played one game at centre, and then decided to replace himself with a better player. The team did not complete the season, as the 40th Battery went overseas in February 1916.

The Battery was ordered into the Ypres salient. On October 12, shelling found their position killing Major Southam and Sergeant-Major Norm Harvie, making Smythe temporarily commander of the Battery. The Battery fought for nearly two months in the trenches near the Somme before being relieved. In February 1917, Smythe earned a Military Cross, when during an attack the Germans counter-attacked with grenades. Smythe ran into the fight and killed three Germans and helped several wounded Canadian soldiers back to safety On March 5, 1917, Smythe was awarded the Military Cross for „dispersing an enemy party at a critical time. Himself accounted for three of the enemy with his revolver.“ After an attack where several Canadians were killed because of what Smythe thought was poor planning by the Battery’s Major, Smythe wanted out. Smythe transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in July 1917. One of his instructors was Billy Barker, who would later become the first president of the Toronto Maple Leafs. Smythe served as an airborne observer, directing artillery fire. Smythe was shot down by the Germans and captured on October 14, 1917. He was imprisoned by the Germans at Schweidnitz (Swidnica) in Upper Silesia. He made two failed escape attempts and ended up in solitary confinement as a result. He was a POW until the end of the war. Smythe would later make light of his fourteen months in captivity „We played so damned much bridge that I never played the game again.“

Following the war, Smythe returned to Toronto. With his accrued Army salary and the proceeds from the sale of his homestead plot, he started a sand and gravel business. For a while, the business became a partnership with Frank Angotti, who owned a paving business. To support the need for sand and gravel, Smythe bought land northwest of Toronto for a sand pit. He returned to the University of Toronto and finished his civil engineering degree in 1920. Irene and Conn were married during the school year. Smythe and his paving business partner split, and Smythe retained the sand and gravel business. The company was named C. Smythe Limited and the company slogan was „C. Smythe for sand“, which he had painted on his trucks, the lettering in white on the blue of the trucks. Frank Selke, who had moved to Toronto, was one of Smythe’s first employees in the business. Irene took sand and gravel orders over the phone as well as taking care of newborn son Stafford. Smythe would own the business until 1961.

In the evenings, he coached the University of Toronto varsity team. It was through his coaching of this team that he became involved in the NHL. The team traveled regularly to the Boston area for games against colleges from that area, with great success. In 1926, Boston Bruins owner Charles Adams recommended him to Col. John S. Hammond, representing the owners of the new New York Rangers franchise, who was looking for someone to build his team. Smythe was hired to recruit a team, which he would then manage. But on October 27, 1926, before the Rangers had played a regular season game, Hammond fired Smythe in favour of Lester Patrick. Smythe believed that he lost his job by refusing to sign two-time NHL scoring champion Babe Dye, against Hammond’s wishes. Smythe thought Dye was not a team player.

Smythe applied to coach the Toronto St. Pats, but was rejected in favour of Mike Rodden. He continued to coach for the University of Toronto and took on a new senior team made up of University of Toronto players, called the Varsity Grads. The team won the Allan Cup, and represented Canada at the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz the following year. Smythe refused to go when two Varsity Blues players he had promised could be part of the team were blocked by what he described as a „pressure play“ from two Grads players to get relatives placed on the team instead. One of the players was Joe Sullivan, who years later became a Canadian Senator.

Although no longer a Rangers employee, Smythe was invited to the Rangers‘ opening game in Madison Square Garden by Tex Rickard, an invitation he nearly turned down because he had felt the Rangers had short-changed him. Hammond paid Smythe $7,500 to settle his contract, and Smythe felt he was owed $10,000. At the insistence of his wife Irene, they traveled to New York and attended the opener in Rickard’s private box. When the Rangers won the game, surprising the Montreal Maroons, Rickard offered Smythe a vice-presidency with the club. Smythe turned the Rangers down, partly because of the disputed $2,500, although Rickard ordered Hammond to pay off the rest. On the return trip to Toronto, Conn and Irene visited Montreal, where Smythe bet the $2,500 on a football game between Toronto and McGill. He then bet the $5,000 he won on the Rangers to defeat the St. Pats in Toronto, winning again, turning the $2,500 into $10,000 in three days. The Rangers won the Stanley Cup in 1928, their second year of existence, largely with the players Smythe had brought to the team.

The Rangers went to the top of their division, while the St. Pats were doing poorly. J. P. Bickell, a part-owner of the St. Pats, contacted Smythe about becoming coach of the St. Pats. However, Smythe told Bickell that he was more interested in buying the team, or at least a stake in the team. Not long after, the St. Pats were put up for sale, and agreed in principle to be sold for $200,000 to a group who would move the team to Philadelphia. Bickell contacted Smythe and told him that if Smythe could raise $160,000 and keep the team in Toronto, Bickell would not sell his $40,000 interest. After persuading majority owner Charlie Querrie that civic pride was more important than money, Smythe put together a syndicate that included Bickell and several other investors that bought the St. Pats. Smythe himself invested $10,000 of his own money. Soon after the sale closed on February 14, 1927, the new owners changed the St. Pats‘ name to the Toronto Maple Leafs.

At first, Smythe’s name was kept in the background. However, when the Leafs promoted a public share offering to raise capital, they announced that „one of the most prominent hockey coaches in Toronto“ would be taking over management of the club. That prominent coach turned out to be Smythe. He succeeded Querrie as the team’s governor, and installed himself as general manager. He installed Alex Romeril as coach. For the next season (1927–28), Smythe changed the team’s colours from green and white to their present blue and white. According to the Maple Leafs, the blue represents the Canadian skies, while white represents snow. They were also the same colours as those of his sand and gravel business trucks. Smythe also took over as coach and for the next three years served as team governor, general manager and coach.

Smythe developed a public image as a „red-faced, pepper-pot“ with nicknames such as „little corporal“ or „little dictator.“ Smythe was not reluctant to chase players and referees on the rink and off. Smythe also developed feuds with opposing coaches and general managers. He used any tactic available to disrupt the opponent. He advertised in a Boston newspaper inviting people to watch „a real hockey team, the Toronto Maple Leafs.“ After learning that Boston general manager Art Ross suffered from hemorrhoids, he gave Ross a bouquet of flowers with a note in Latin describing where he should shove the flowers.

In 1929, Smythe decided, in the midst of the Great Depression, that the Maple Leafs needed a new arena. The Arena Gardens seated 8,000 and the Maple Leafs were regularly filling it with 9,000 customers. Smythe knew it would take over a million dollars to construct and he got backing from the Sun Life insurance company for half a million. He found a site owned by the T. Eaton Co. department store chain on Carlton Street, a site Smythe selected because it was on the street car line. Smythe gave up the coaching position to concentrate on the arena project. The building started construction on June 1, 1931, and was ready on November 12, 1931, after five months. As part of a corporate reorganization, Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. was founded that year to own both the team and the arena. To pay for the building construction, the construction workers were paid with Maple Leaf Gardens stock instead of 20% of their pay. Selke, who had union connections, and Smythe were successful in negotiating the payment method in exchange for using unionized workers.

In its first season in the new building, Smythe fired coach Art Duncan after five games and hired Dick Irvin to coach. Irvin promptly led the Maple Leafs to their first Stanley Cup as the Maple Leafs, and the franchise’s third overall. While the Leafs would go to the finals every year except for 1934 and 1937 during Irvin’s nine-year tenure, they were unable to win another Cup. By 1940, Smythe believed that Irvin had taken the Leafs as far as he could, and decided to replace him with former Leafs captain Hap Day, who had retired. Smythe also knew that he would be away in the war and felt that Irvin would not be tough enough without Smythe to back him up. Meanwhile, the Montreal Canadiens had had a ten-win season, and were looking for a new coach. At the suggestion of Smythe, Irvin became the new coach of the Canadiens.

Smythe first became interested in horse racing as a boy, when he would take stories his father wrote at the track to the newspaper office downtown. Smythe started owning horses in the late 1920s, but he rarely had any success. One early purchase turned out to be one of his most famous. When Mrs. L. A. Livingston sold off her stable, he bought Rare Jewel, a filly, for $250. The filly regularly ran last. The horse was eligible for the Coronation Futurity Stakes, one of the best two-year-old races. Smythe was full of blind hope, and on the trainer’s advice, entered her in the race. The day of the race, both the trainer and his partner gave the horse some brandy, unknown to Smythe, who bet over $100 on Rare Jewel. She won the race, a 100–1 longshot paying $214.40 on a $2 bet, besting future Queen’s Plate winner Froth Blower. Between the winnings from his bets and his portion of the winner’s purse as horse owner, Smythe won more than $10,000 on that one race. Three weeks later, he put his windfall to work for the Maple Leafs by purchasing star defenceman King Clancy from the depression-strapped Ottawa Senators for $35,000. The purchase was only possible because of his gambling winnings, as the other Maple Leafs owners refused to pay the Senators‘ then-high price, and only agreed when Smythe volunteered to use his own money.

Smythe continued to own horses through the 1930s, but he sold them in 1940, when he made plans to fight in the Second World War. He did not re-enter the racing business until 1954. In 1951, Smythe bought land for a farm in Caledon, Ontario, originally looking for a new location for a gravel pit. At first he kept only cattle, but in 1954 he decided to get back into owning race horses, in partnership with Larkin Maloney, and an area was set aside to keep horses. Smythe learned about the business and went into breeding, buying mares in foal from top thoroughbred lines, and hiring future Hall of Fame trainer Yonnie Starr.

Maloney and Smythe’s most famous horse Wonder Where, also led to the breakup of the partnership. Wonder Where, named by Maloney, was bred at Frank Selke’s farm in Quebec and bought by Maloney and Smythe in 1957. In 1959, Wonder Where had an outstanding season, including winning the Canadian Oaks. The horse was voted Canadian Horse of the Year for the year and later, the filly was inducted in the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame. The Wonder Where Stakes was established in honour of the horse in 1965, becoming one of the Canadian Triple Tiara races for fillies in Canada in 1995. After the outstanding year in 1959, Maloney wanted to continue racing Wonder Where and Smythe did not, concerned over some tendon trouble. The horse broke down in a race in Fort Erie, and the partnership dissolved after that.

While not the largest operation, Smythe’s horses won 145 stakes races during his lifetime, a record second only to E. P. Taylor in Canada. Smythe’s stable won the Queen’s Plate twice, the first in 1958 with Caledon Beau and the second in 1967 with Jammed Lovely. In 1973, Smythe became a founding member of the Jockey Club of Canada. In 1977 he was inducted in the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame. After his death, the Smythe stable was sold in 1981 to Gardiner Farms and Harlequin Ranches, for an estimated $2.5 million. Smythe’s will gave the racing stable to the Conn Smythe Foundation, which as a charitable foundation, could not run a business. The new owners leased back the farm and stables. The only horse not in the sale was Jammed Lucky, Smythe’s favourite, which was given to Smythe’s grandson Tommy. Jammed Lucky was 23 years old and had sired 25 winning foals to that point.

In the Second World War, at age 45, Smythe again served in the Canadian Army. Initially, he was a captain in charge of a troop within the Canadian Officers Training Corps, based at the University of Toronto. In 1941, along with Colonel Richard Greer, he formed the 30th Battery, a sportsmen’s anti-aircraft battery that was part of the 7th Toronto Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery, Canadian Active Army. Smythe was made acting major and Officer Commanding. He was offered a higher rank to become the army’s sports officer, but turned it down. After first serving on Vancouver Island to defend against Japanese attack, the Battery embarked in September 1942 to England. After being stationed in England for nearly two years, Smythe and his unit were sent to France in July 1944, where within three weeks he was badly wounded when the Germans bombed an ammunition depot. For the rest of his life he would walk with a limp and suffer bowel and urinary tract problems. He was sent back to Canada in September on a hospital ship.

Smythe, who had seen that the army was using improperly trained troops due to a lack of soldiers, interviewed other soldiers during his time in the hospital, compiling a record over which to confront Mackenzie King. King had developed an official government policy of voluntary service for political reasons and Smythe saw the detrimental effect it had on the Army. Volunteers tried to press home service troops into active service to assist and augment the undermanned troops overseas. From his bed in the Chorley Park Hospital, Smythe dictated a statement to The Globe and Mail newspaper, which printed it on its front page on September 19, 1944:

During my time in France and in the hospitals of France and England, I was able to discuss the reinforcement situation with officers of units representing every section of Canada. I talked to officers from far Eastern Canada, French Canada, Ontario and all the Western Provinces. They agreed that the reinforcements received now are green, inexperienced and poorly trained. Besides this general statement, specific charges are that many have never thrown a grenade.

Practically all have little or no knowledge of the Bren gun and finally, most of them have never seen a Piat anti-tank gun, let alone fired one. These officers are unaniminous in stating that large numbers of unnecessary casualties result from this greenness, both to the rookies and to the other soldiers, who have the added task of trying to look after the newcomers as well as themselves.

I give these true facts of the reinforcement situation in the hope that:

Smythe was accused of acting solely for political gain. The publisher of the Globe and Mail at the time was prominent Conservative George McCullagh, and Smythe was friends with Ontario Conservative Premier George Drew. McCullagh and Drew may have used Smythe for their political ends to defeat King. The issue of lack of reinforcements was well-known within the Army and Smythe did not make any complaints to senior officers while in active service. Despite being criticized, Smythe kept up his public criticism in the newspapers. After James Ralston, Canada’s defence minister, traveled to Italy, he saw for himself the shortage of skilled reinforcements. Ralston, who King did not trust, was replaced with Andrew McNaughton, who was against conscription. However, even King saw the need to send troops for the Canadian Army and he ordered 17,500 reserve troops to Europe in November 1944, which started to arrive in January 1945

While Smythe was away, a committee, headed by Ed Bickle, Bill MacBrien, and Selke ran Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. Upon his return from the military, Smythe found himself in the middle of a power struggle over the presidency of Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. Smythe suspected that MacBrien, a member of the board of directors, wanted to succeed Bickle as president and give Smythe’s job to Selke, who had been acting general manager in Smythe’s absence. Smythe wanted to be president and asked Selke for his support. Selke equivocated, and relationship between the two long-time friends turned acrimonious, leading to Selke’s resignation in May 1946. Two months later, Selke became head of hockey operations for the Montreal Canadiens and manager of the Montreal Forum, succeeding Tommy Gorman.

With the support of J. P. Bickell and with the help of a $300,000 loan from Toronto stockbroker and Gardens shareholder Percy Gardiner, Smythe was able to buy enough stock to become majority shareholder of Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. He was thus able to install himself as president of the Gardens on November 19, 1947. Andy Lytle, sports editor of the Toronto Star, said the appointment „simply makes official what he has been for years in actuality … Smythe and the Gardens are synonymous terms.“ MacBrien was made chairman. Smythe repaid his debt to Gardiner by 1960. He later succeeded MacBrien as chairman of the board.

Smythe oversaw one of hockey’s greatest dynasties when Toronto won six Stanley Cups in 10 seasons between 1942 and 1951. Hap Day coached the team to five of those Cups and was assistant general manager for the sixth. He was named in a poll of Canadian sports editors the „most dominating personality in any capacity in sports“ for 1949. The Maple Leafs were masters of playoff hockey; their regular-season performances were usually fair to good or just good enough to make the playoffs. Smythe was known for caring little about gaudy regular season records but he did care about winning the Cup, because „winning sells tickets.“

However, the Leafs spent most of the 1950s as a mediocre team, struggling under three different coaches while Day remained assistant general manager under Smythe. Even so, in 1955, Smythe turned over most responsibility for hockey operations to Day, but nominally remained general manager. However, just after the Leafs were eliminated from the playoffs in 1957, Smythe told the media that it had been „a season of failure“ and that he did not know if the 55-year-old Day would be available for the next season. Day felt that his legs had been cut out from under him and resigned.

By this time Smythe had turned the operation of the hockey team over to a seven-person committee, headed by his son, Stafford Smythe. Newspaper owner John Bassett was another member of the committee, as was Percy Gardiner’s son, George Gardiner. The committee became known as the „Silver Seven“ because the seven had been „born with a silver spoon in their mouths.“ Initially, all members were in their 30s or early 40s, but that changed before the end of the year when 54-year-old Harold Ballard, president of the Toronto Marlboros, was appointed to the committee to fill a vacancy. The committee hired Punch Imlach as general manager, who would later take over the coaching job.

Smythe was an NHL owner during the era before the player’s union. The NHL was only six teams and players who didn’t toe the line could easily be demoted to the minor leagues and a replacement found. Players who didn’t follow Smythe’s rules were traded or sent to the minors. Two players, Danny Lewicki and John McCormack were both demoted to the minors for getting married without Smythe’s permission.

While the pay was relatively good, it still left many players looking for other jobs during the off-season, while the owners were all wealthy men. The conditions led to two organizing efforts at forming a player’s union, which Smythe was vehemently against. From 1957 onwards, Smythe, along with other NHL owners including James D. Norris of the Chicago Black Hawks and his half brother Bruce Norris of the Detroit Red Wings were accused of union busting activities related to the attempt by Ted Lindsay and a group of NHL players to form an NHL Players Association. Mr. Smythe’s role in those affairs are dramatized in the movie, Net Worth. Jimmy Thomson, who was acting captain of the Maple Leafs when the players started to organize was singled out by Smythe. Smythe detailed all the monies Thomson had been paid by the organization going back to junior, while he arranged for Thomson to be left off the team, allegedly calling Thomson a traitor and publicly blaming him for the team’s poor season. Thomson finally announced to the press that he would never play again for the Maple Leafs. Thomson and Tod Sloan were traded away to Chicago. The NHL owners eventually agreed to make some concessions to the players, such as contributing to the players‘ pensions. The owners were able to temporarily head off the formation of the union, although it would eventually be organized some ten years later.

Though the committee made most decisions involving the Leafs, Smythe was not a hands-off owner and was constantly fighting with his son. Stafford commented: „My father has always given me lots of rope. When I was thirty, I was ten years ahead of everybody. But at forty, I’m ten years behind everybody.“ Finally, in 1961, Stafford resigned from the Silver Seven and this spurred Conn. After four years of fighting, he offered to sell his shares to Stafford and in November 1961, Smythe sold 45,000 of his 50,000 shares in Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. to a partnership of his son, Ballard, and Bassett for $2.3 million—a handsome return on his investment of 34 years earlier. At first, Smythe thought the sale was only to his son, and when he learned that it was to the threesome, he was furious with Stafford. He had hoped that Stafford would eventually keep the Gardens for his son Tommy. Despite his misgivings, Smythe did not cancel the deal.

As part of the deal, Smythe resigned as president and managing director, nominating Stafford to succeed him. On Stafford’s instigation, the board then granted Smythe a $15,000 annual allowance, an office at the Gardens, and a car and driver for the rest of his life. Stafford, Ballard and Bassett then nominated Smythe as chairman of the board. Smythe retired as NHL governor on February 5, 1962, a position he had held since 1927. Smythe resigned the chairmanship after Toronto won the Stanley Cup in 1962 and Bassett succeeded him.

In 1964, Smythe opposed the Lester Pearson government’s plan to replace the traditional Canadian flag with a completely new design. He wrote to Pearson, whom he had known since the 1920s: „In the Olympic Games, the whole world is represented and when Canada sometimes wins a Gold Medal everybody knows, when the Red Ensign (see Canadian Red Ensign) is raised to the masthead, that Canada has won.“ Smythe disagreed that a new flag would help to unify the country. Smythe switched his support to John Diefenbaker. Smythe wrote over 300 letters to Members of Parliament. In 1965, he unsuccessfully lobbied for the Red Ensign to be flown at the Gardens instead of the new Flag of Canada. Harold Ballard ordered the new flag flown because calls were more than three to one in favour of the new flag.

In March 1966, Smythe sold his remaining shares and resigned from the board of directors after a Muhammad Ali boxing match was scheduled for the Gardens. He found Ali’s refusal to serve in the U.S. Army in the Vietnam War to be offensive, because, as he put it in his autobiography „The Gardens was founded by men – sportsmen – who fought for their country. It is no place for those want to evade conscription in their own country. The Gardens was built for many things, but not for picking up things that no one else wants.“ He also said that by accepting the fight, Gardens owners had „put cash ahead of class.“

Smythe stayed away from the Gardens and he took pot shots in the press, stating that he had been „traded for $35,000 and a black Muslim minister.“ The seats at the Gardens had been replaced with new, narrower ones and Smythe commented that „only a slim, young man could sit in them but the prices are so high that only a fat rich man could afford them.“

Smythe continued to be sought out for his views on hockey. When the NHL expanded to 12 teams from six in 1967, he openly opposed the expansion on the basis that it would make for inferior hockey. „We had the best players in the world split between six teams, and hockey was always worth the money.“

By this time Conn and Stafford were not on speaking terms and it fell to Tom Smythe, Stafford’s son, to mediate between the two. Stafford built a new office suite at the Gardens for Conn, and the feud was over. After Stafford was charged in 1971 with fraud and became ill with a stomach ulcer, Conn was with him in hospital when he died. According to Conn, Stafford’s last words to him were „see dad, I told you they wouldn’t put me in jail.“

After the Second World War, Smythe became involved in charities and would remain so for the rest of his life. He became heavily involved in the Ontario Society for Crippled Children. Smythe helped organize the financing and construction of their Variety Club Village complex in Toronto. In 1975, at the age of 80, Smythe organized the financing and building of the Ontario Community Centre for the Deaf, which opened in 1979.

In 1960, after paying off his debt to Percy Gardiner, Smythe set up the Conn Smythe Charitable Foundation, which distributes money to charities in the Toronto area. The foundation was operated by Conn, his children and Hap Day. Day continued to help with the Foundation until his death in 1990. Before he died, Conn arranged for his grandson Thomas Smythe to continue the Foundation after his death.

Smythe supervised the construction of the Hockey Hall of Fame building in Toronto in 1961. He served as the Hall’s chairman for several years, but resigned in June 1971 when Busher Jackson was posthumously elected into the Hall. Smythe said that it made him sick to think of Jackson alongside such Leafs as „Apps, Primeau, Conacher, Clancy and Kennedy. If the standards are going to be lowered I’ll get out as chairman of the board.“ Jackson was notorious for his off-ice lifestyle of drinking and broken marriages. Frank Selke, head of the selection committee defended the selection on the belief that a man should not be shut out „because of the amount of beer he drank.“

The National Hockey League honoured Smythe’s contribution to the game by introducing the Conn Smythe Trophy in 1965, to be presented to the Most Valuable Player in the Stanley Cup playoffs. After his death, the trophy was renamed the Conn Smythe Memorial Trophy. The league also named one of its four divisions, the Smythe Division, after him prior to the 1974–75 season.

Smythe Park and Recreation Centre in Toronto is located on the site of his old gravel pit. The surrounding neighbourhood is named Rockcliffe-Smythe, partly a sub-division Smythe built for war veterans. Smythe made provisions for a portion of the lands of the sub-division to be reserved for the centre. A street north of Eglinton Avenue, west of Markham Avenue, is named Conn Smythe Drive in his honour.

His autobiography, Conn Smythe: If You Can’t Beat ‚Em in the Alley, written with Scott Young, was published posthumously in 1981. The title was taken from Smythe’s credo, „If you can’t beat ‚em in the alley, you can’t beat ‚em on the ice.“ In Smythe’s memoir he describes it as the most misunderstood remark he ever made. Rather than meaning that his players should go out and bully the opposition, he meant the opposite; that his players should refuse to be bullied by the opposition.

Conn Smythe was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 1998.

Smythe married Irene Sands on March 17, 1920, at Central Methodist Church. The couple lived in an apartment on St. Clair Avenue, then moved to the Runnymede area of Toronto to be close to Smythe’s sand and gravel business, which operated a gravel pit north-west of Jane Street and St. Clair. (Smythe Park exists on the site today). In 1927, after their first two children, Stafford and Miriam, were born, they moved to the Baby Point enclave of Toronto, where they would live for the rest of their lives. Irene and Smythe had two other children, Hugh and Patricia. Hugh became a doctor; a specialist in rheumatology, and later a director of Maple Leaf Gardens. Patricia died due to an allergic attack at the age of ten, in 1945. Stafford became involved in the Smythe sand and gravel business and Maple Leaf Gardens before dying of complications from a bleeding ulcer in 1971. Stafford’s son Thomas was a stick boy with the Maple Leafs and later was involved with the Toronto Marlboros and Doug Laurie Sporting Goods at Maple Leaf Gardens, before becoming director of the Smythe Charitable Foundation after Conn’s death.

Smythe’s father died in 1947 at 86 years of age. Smythe had had a rapprochement with his father, seeing him at Christmas and at times when Albert came to Toronto to preach. After his father’s death, Smythe joined the Theosophical Society and remained a member for life. In 1977, Smythe explained why he was a theosophist: „It’s because a theosophist teaches you that ya can’t get away with anything in this life anyway.“

Irene Smythe was diagnosed with cancer after Christmas 1963. The illness progressed and Irene died on June 20, 1965. Due to the amount of pain Irene endured, Conn and Irene considered using a revolver to end her life, but near the end she told Conn that it was a „coward’s way out“ and she endured. After the amount of pain Irene endured, Smythe called her death a „blessed release.“ Smythe set up a foundation at the University of Toronto in her name, which opened the Irene Eleanor Smythe Pain Clinic at Toronto General Hospital.

On April 20, 1978, Smythe suffered a heart attack. He spent a month in the hospital, in time to spend May 18 at Woodbine, where he had four horses racing that day. His health continued to deteriorate and Conn realized that he was dying. He arranged for Thomas Smythe to take over the Conn Smythe Foundation, and he made gifts of money to relatives. Conn Smythe died at the age of 85 in 1980 at his home on Baby Point. He is interred with Irene at Park Lawn Cemetery in Toronto.

Ивиницкий, Илья Семёнович

* Количество игр и голов за профессиональный клуб считается только для различных лиг национальных чемпионатов.

Илья Семёнович Ивиницкий (24 марта 1949, Москва, РСФСР, СССР) — советский футболист и футбольный тренер.

Илья Ивиницкий — воспитанник — ДЮСШ московского «Спартака», где его тренировал Олимпийский чемпион 1956 года Анатолий Константинович Исаев. В составе молодёжной команды «Спартака» был чемпионом СССР 1966 года. Играл вратарём в 1967 году в дубле московского «Спартака», в 1968 году провёл 4 матча за костромской «Спартак», в 1969 году начинал сначала в тульском «Металлурге», затем играл в махачкалинском «Динамо». С 1970 по 1971 годы выступал за ивановский «Текстильщик», за который провёл 6 матчей. Также играл в «Искре» из Смоленска, тамбовском «Ревтруде», рязанском «Спартаке» и в горьковской «Волга». Завершал карьеру в клубе «Москвич».

После окончания футбольной карьеры остался тренировать «Москвич», после чего 4 года проработал в Алжире. С 1989 по 2007 годы работал директором в ДЮСШОР московского «Спартака»

Заслуженный работник физической культуры Российской Федерации (1999). В декабре 2006 года он был удостоен знаком «За вклад в развитие юношеского футбола». В январе 2007 года Президент России Владимир Путин подписал указ о награждении Ивиницкого медалью ордена «За заслуги перед Отечеством» II степени.


Kolombangara (sometimes spelled Kulambangara) is an island in the New Georgia Islands group of the Solomon Islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The name is from a local language, a rough translation of its meaning is „Water Lord“ with approximately 80 rivers and streams running down its flanks.

Almost perfectly round in shape and about 15 km (9 miles) across, the island is a stratovolcano that reaches an altitude of 1,770 metres (5,807 ft) at Mount Veve. The island forms part of the southern boundary of the New Georgia Sound; to the northwest the Vella Gulf separates it from Vella Lavella and Gizo, while to the southeast New Georgia lies across the Kula Gulf. West-Southwest of Kolombangara is Ghizo Island, upon which the Western provincial capital Gizo is located.

Kolombangara is heavily forested, with few inhabitants. Kolombangara has two notable settlements, Ringgi and Mongga, the former being the larger. The most significant industry on the island at this time is logging, with the largest of these based at Poitete.

During World War II the island and the waters around it were the scene of much fighting. The Imperial Japanese Army used an airstrip on some flat ground at Vila on the south shore of the island, and in May 1943 based several military units with over ten thousand troops garrisoned on the southeast side of the island under the command of Major General Minoru Sasaki, in an attempt to establish a defense line through the Central Solomons. Naval battles nearby included the Battle of Kula Gulf and Battle of Kolombangara.

The most famous and bloody battle was the mission to intercept the „Tokyo Express“ supply convoy which resulted in the ramming and explosion of U.S. torpedo boat PT-109, manned by John F. Kennedy and his crew. Australian coastwatcher, Sub Lieutenant Arthur Reginald Evans, who manned a secret observation post at the top of the island’s Mount Veve volcano, spotted the explosion. After decoding news that the explosion he had witnessed was probably from the lost PT-109 he dispatched Solomon Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana in a dugout canoe to look for possible survivors. Their courageous efforts led to the subsequent discovery and rescue of John F. Kennedy and the surviving crew.

After destroyers succeeded in sinking the supply ships three nights later and isolating the garrison of 12,400 there, US forces were able to „leapfrog“ Kolombangara to land on Vella Lavella to the west. The Japanese evacuated Kolombangara between September 23 and October 4, 1943.

In January 1944 a detachment of 1 officer and 6 enlisted men from the 350th Engineer General Service Regiment stationed at Munda, established a vegetable farm on the Japanese abandoned airstrip at Vila. The British government furnished 16 male natives to help with the project. With seeds acquired through the International Red Cross, many vegetables were sent back to the base hospital to supplement the dehydrated meals served the recuperating veterans. The main item was watermelons.


Stele von Andaval

Die Stele von Andaval ist das Fragment eines späthethitischen Monuments aus Aktaş (früher Andaval) bei Niğde in der Türkei. Sie stammt wahrscheinlich aus dem 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr.

Das Stelenfragment aus Basalt wurde am 25. Juni 1890 in der Konstantinsbasilika von Andaval, etwa zehn Kilometer nordöstlich von Niğde, verbaut gefunden. Es zeigt in einem eingetieften Feld eine wahrscheinlich stehende Person, von der nur der Kopf erhalten ist. Die Haare des im Profil abgebildeten Mannes sind als Spiralen dargestellt, im Nacken fällt der gerollte Schopf herab. Das Ohr und das frontal gezeigte Auge sind auf die flache Wangenpartie aufgesetzt. Winfried Orthmann nimmt an, dass es sich um die Darstellung des Stifters handelt.

Um den Kopf des Dargestellten ist eine Inschrift in luwischen Hieroglyphen eingraviert. Sie gibt als Errichter der Stele einen Saruwanis, Herrscher von Nahitiya an. Nahitiya wird allgemein mit dem hethitischen Nahita und dem heutigen Niğde gleichgesetzt. Nahitiya war demnach eine Stadt, die zum Königreich Tuwana in der Region Tabal gehörte. Er erwähnt weiter einen Warpalawas, bei dem es sich vermutlich um den König von Tuwana im 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. handelt. Die Übersetzung lautet nach John David Hawkins:

I (am) [S]aru[w]anis the ruler, the lord of the city of Nahitiya.
And I […]
And when(?) I shall bring [it] out of the plains,
I shall (summer-)pasture the horseherd here,
and (for) me it […]
[…] and Warpalawa […] make great […]

Hawkins nimmt an, dass Saruwanis ein Vorgänger des Warpalawas war und datiert danach die Stele ins frühe 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Silvia Balatti datiert das Stück nach paläographischen und ikonographischen Gesichtspunkten ins 9. bis frühe 8. Jahrhundert.

Das Stelenbruchstück ist heute im Museum für anatolische Zivilisationen in Ankara ausgestellt, im Archäologischen Museum Niğde befindet sich eine Kopie.

Schloss Kapfenburg

Das Schloss Kapfenburg steht auf einer Bergnase des Albtraufs bei Lauchheim im Ostalbkreis in Baden-Württemberg.

Auf dem Felsen einer frei vortretenden Bergkuppe am Nordrand des Härtsfeldes oberhalb von Lauchheim erhebt sich das aus verschiedenen Gebäudekomplexen bestehende ehemalige Deutschordensschloss Kapfenburg. Die Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens begann 1190 während des Dritten Kreuzzuges mit der Gründung einer Hospitalgemeinschaft vor der Hafenstadt Akkon in Palästina. Bereits 1198 wurde die Hospitalbruderschaft in einen geistlichen Ritterorden umgewandelt.

1311 wurde die zum Besitz der Grafen von Öttingen gehörende Kapfenburg erstmals urkundlich erwähnt. 1364 erwarb Marquardt der Zoller von Rottenstein, Komtur des Deutschordenshauses Mergentheim, die Kapfenburg. Sie wurde als zur Ballei Franken gehörende Kommende Verwaltungsmittelpunkt für die auf dem Härtsfeld und im oberen Tal der Jagst liegende Besitzung des Ordens. Den Haupteingang des Schlosses bildet die 1534 erbaute Bastion. Unter Komtur Johann Graf von Hohenlohe entstand 1538 der Hohenlohebau. Unter Komtur Johann Eustach von Westernach (1590–1627) entfaltete sich auf der Kapfenburg eine rege Bautätigkeit. Auf gewaltigen Substruktionen entstand der Haupttrakt des Schlosses, der Westernachbau, mit dem die Kapfenburg vom mittelalterlichen Wehrbau zum repräsentativen Herrschaftsschloss ausgebaut wurde. Die östliche Eingangsfront ist als reiche Schaufassade ausgestaltet. Weitere prächtige Portale führen in die Schlosskapelle und den Rittersaal mit Stuckdekor von Gerhard Schmidt. An den Wänden hängen Porträts verschiedener Hochmeister und Komture, die zusammen mit großen Wappentafeln zum letzten erhaltenen Inventar des Schlosses gehören.

Im Bauernkrieg 1525 wurde die Burg dreimal von aufständischen Bauern angegriffen, konnte sich aber behaupten. Unter den Komturen der Kapfenburg war Johann Eustach von Westernach am bekanntesten, der 1625 zum Hoch- und Deutschmeister ernannt wurde.

Im Dreißigjährigen Krieg (1618–1648) wurde das Schloss geplündert. Erst unter der Regierung des für Bauangelegenheiten aufgeschlossenen Komturs Karl Heinrich Freiherr von Hornstein (1713–1718) begann in der Ballei Franken eine Phase verstärkter baulicher Aktivität. Als Hauskomtur auf der Kapfenburg zog Hornstein ab 1714 Franz Keller, den Baumeister des Deutschen Ordens, heran, um große Teile der alten Burganlage umgestalten zu lassen. Neben Keller konnte Hornstein auch Franz Joseph Roth verpflichten. Zwischen 1715 und 1719 erhielt die Kapfenburg ihr heutiges Aussehen.

Um den hinter der Bastion gelegenen Vorhof errichtete Keller verschiedene Ökonomiegebäude und die Lorenzkapelle, die Roth stuckierte. Die Lorenzkapelle war ursprünglich als Grabkapelle für Hornstein bestimmt. Die beiden Wohngeschosse des Westernachbaus ließ Keller in helle und große Räume umbauen, die dem Bauherrn ein zeitgemäßes Repräsentieren und Wohnen ermöglichten. Unterhalb des Westernachbaus entstand auch ein kleiner Terrassengarten.

Kurfürst Herzog Friedrich II. von Württemberg erließ 1805 ein Besitzergreifungspatent über Besitzungen des Deutschen Ordens in Württemberg und in den angrenzenden Gebieten, wogegen Bayern militärisch erfolgreich vorging; erst mit der Rheinbundakte von 1806 gingen die Kapfenburg und andere Kommenden an das Königreich Württemberg über. Bis 1807 residierte Friedrichs Sohn Paul auf Schloss Kapfenburg. 1809 erfolgte in den Rheinbundstaaten die durch Napoleon erlassene Aufhebung des Deutschen Ordens, die Hochmeisterresidenz wurde nach Wien verlegt.

1957–1962 wurde der Rittersaal und die Schlosskapelle restauriert. Im Erdgeschoss des Westernachbaus richtete die Stadt Lauchheim 1986 ein Heimatmuseum ein.

Seit Oktober 1999 beherbergt es die Stiftung Internationale Musikschulakademie Kulturzentrum Schloss Kapfenburg und ist ein Ort für Probenaufenthalte von Musikern. Es finden zudem regelmäßig klassische Konzerte und ein großes Festival im Sommer statt. Mit ihrer Bildungsarbeit setzt sich die Stiftung für Musikergesundheit ein.

Schlösser: Schloss Adelmannsfelden | Schloss Baldern | Schloss Böbingen | Schloss Dambach | Schloss Dorotheenhof | Schloss ob Ellwangen | Schloss Essingen | Schloss Fachsenfeld | Schloss Heubach | Schloss Hohenroden | Schloss Hohenstadt | Schloss Horn | Schloss Kapfenburg | Schloss Laubach | Schloss Leinzell | Schloss Lindach | Schloss Neubronn | Schloss Schechingen | Schloss Tannhausen | Schloss Untergröningen | Schloss Utzmemmingen | Schloss Wagenhofen | Schloss Wasseralfingen | Schloss Wört | Stolch’sches Schloss

Burgen und Ruinen: Alte Bürg (Riesbürg) | Burgstall Agnesburg | Burgstall Baierstein | Burg Bargau | Burg Degenfeld | Burg Flochberg | Burg Granegg | Burgruine Gromberg | Burg Herlikofen | Burgruine Hohenalfingen | Ruine Hohenrechberg | Burg Kocherburg | Ruine Lauterburg | Turmhügelburg Leinroden | Burg Niederalfingen | Burgstall Rechbergle | Burg Reichenbach | Burgruine Rosenstein | Burg Schenkenstein | Burgstall Schlössle | Burg Stubenberg | Schloss Unterschneidheim | Burgruine Waldau | Burg Waldstetten | Burgstall Winken | Burgruine Wöllstein



Sun-1 was the first generation of UNIX computer workstations and servers produced by Sun Microsystems, launched in May 1982. These were based on a CPU board designed by Andy Bechtolsheim while he was a graduate student at Stanford University and funded by DARPA. The Sun-1 systems ran SunOS 0.9, a port of UniSoft’s UniPlus V7 port of Seventh Edition UNIX to the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, with no window system. Early Sun-1 workstations and servers used the original Sun logo, a series of red „U“s laid out in a square, rather than the more familiar purple diamond shape used later.

The first Sun-1 workstation was sold to Solo Systems in May 1982. The Sun-1/100 was used in the original Lucasfilm EditDroid non-linear editing system.

The Sun 1 workstation was based on the Stanford University SUN workstation designed by Andy Bechtolsheim (advised by Vaughan Pratt and Forrest Baskett), a graduate student and co-founder of Sun Microsystems. At the heart of this design were the Multibus CPU, memory, and video display cards. The cards used in the Sun-1 workstation were a second-generation design with a private memory bus allowing memory to be expanded to 2 MB without performance degradation.

The Sun 68000 board introduced in 1982 was a powerful single-board computer. It combined a 10 MHz Motorola 68000 microprocessor, a Sun designed memory management unit (MMU), 256 KB of zero wait state memory with parity, up to 32 KB of EPROM memory, two serial ports, a 16-bit parallel port and an Intel Multibus (IEEE 796 bus) interface in a single 12-inch-wide (300 mm), 6.75-inch-deep (171 mm) Multibus form factor.

By using the Motorola 68000 processor tightly coupled with the Sun-1 MMU the Sun 68000 CPU board was able to support a multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX. It included an advanced Sun designed multi-process two-level memory management unit with facilities for memory protection, code sharing and demand paging of memory.

The CPU board included 256 KB of memory which could be replaced or augmented with two additional memory cards for a total of 2 MB. Although the memory cards used the Multibus form factor, they only used the Multibus interface for power; all memory access was via the smaller private P2 bus. This was a synchronous private memory bus which allowed for simultaneous memory input/output transfers. It also allowed for full performance zero wait state operation of the memory. When installing the first 1 MB expansion board either the 256 Kb of memory on the CPU board or the first 256 KB on the expansion board had to be disabled.

On-board I/O included a dual serial port UART and a 16-bit parallel port. The serial ports were implemented with an Intel 8274 UART and later with a NEC D7201C UART. Serial port A was wired as a Data Communications Equipment (DCE) port and had full modem control. It was also the console port if no graphical display was installed in the system. Serial port B was wired as a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) port and had no modem control. Both serial ports could also be used as terminal ports and quite often were allowing 3 people to use one workstation, although two did not have graphical displays. The 16-bit parallel port was a special purpose port for connecting 8-bit parallel port keyboard and 8-bit parallel port optical mouse for workstations with graphical displays. The parallel port was never used as a general purpose parallel printer port.

The CPU board included a fully compatible Multibus (IEEE 796 bus). It was an asynchronous bus that accommodated devices with various transfer rates while maintaining maximum throughput. It had 20 address lines so it could address up to 1 MB of Multibus memory and 1 MB of I/O locations although most I/O devices only decoded the first 64 KB of address space. The Sun CPU board fully supported multi-master functionality that allowed it to share the Multibus with other DMA devices.

The keyboard was a Micro Switch 103SD30-2, or a KeyTronic P2441 for the German market. The memory-mapped, bit-mapped frame buffer (graphics) board had a resolution of 1024×1024 pixels, but only 1024×800 was displayed on the monitor. The graphics board included hardware to accelerate raster operations. A Ball model HD17H 17-inch video display monitor was used. An Ethernet board was available, originally implementing the 3 Mbit/s Xerox PARC Ethernet specification, which was later upgraded to the 3Com 10 Mbit/s version. An Interphase SMD 2180 disk controller could be installed to connect up to four Fujitsu 84 MB M2313K or CDC 16.7 MB (8.35 MB fixed, 8.35 MB removable) 9455 Lark drives. All of the boards were installed in a 6 or 7-slot Multibus card cage.

Later documentation shows that a 13- or 19-inch color display was available. The color frame buffer had a resolution of 640×512 pixels, with 640×480 displayed on the monitor. The board could display 256 colors from a palette of 16 million. ½-inch 9-track reel-to-reel tape drives and QIC-02 ¼-inch cartridge tape drives were also added to the offering.

There was also a second generation Sun-1 CPU board referred to as the Sun-1.5 CPU board.

Sun-1 systems upgraded with Sun-2 Multibus CPU boards were identified with a U suffix to their model number.


The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′13.6″ (or 23.43711°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′13.6″ (or 23.43711°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone). The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun is at a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year (which is a subsolar point).

The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone.

„Tropical“ is sometimes used in a general sense for a tropical climate to mean warm to hot and moist year-round, often with the sense of lush vegetation.

Many tropical areas have a dry and wet season. The wet season, rainy season or green season, is the time of year, ranging from one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls. Areas with wet seasons are disseminated across portions of the tropics and subtropics. Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 millimetres (2.4 in) or more. Tropical rainforests technically do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is equally distributed through the year. Some areas with pronounced rainy seasons see a break in rainfall during mid-season when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves poleward of their location during the middle of the warm season.

When the wet season occurs during the warm season, or summer, precipitation falls mainly during the late afternoon and early evening hours. The wet season is a time when air quality improves, freshwater quality improves and vegetation grows significantly, leading to crop yields late in the season. Floods cause rivers to overflow their banks, and some animals to retreat to higher ground. Soil nutrients diminish and erosion increases. The incidence of malaria increases in areas where the rainy season coincides with high temperatures. Animals have adaptation and survival strategies for the wetter regime. Unfortunately, the previous dry season leads to food shortages into the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature.

Regions within the tropics may well not have a tropical climate. There are alpine tundra and snow-capped peaks, including Mauna Kea, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the Andes as far south as the northernmost parts of Chile and Argentina. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of the area within the geographical tropics is classed not as „tropical“ but as „dry“ (arid or semi-arid) including the Sahara Desert, the Atacama Desert and Australian Outback.

Tropical plants and animals are those species native to the tropics. Tropical ecosystems may consist of rainforests, dry deciduous forests, spiny forests, desert and other habitat types. There are often significant areas of biodiversity, and species endemism present, particularly in rainforests and dry deciduous forests. Some examples of important biodiversity and/or high endemism ecosystems are: El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, Costa Rican and Nicaraguan rainforests, Amazon Rainforest territories of several South American countries, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, the Waterberg Biosphere of South Africa, and eastern Madagascar rainforests. Often the soils of tropical forests are low in nutrient content, making them quite vulnerable to slash-and-burn deforestation techniques, which are sometimes an element of shifting cultivation agricultural systems.

In biogeography, the tropics are divided into Paleotropics (Africa, Asia and Australia) and Neotropics (Caribbean, Central America, and South America). Together, they are sometimes referred to as the Pantropic. The Neotropical region should not be confused with the ecozone of the same name; in the Old World, there is no such ambiguity, as the Paleotropics correspond to the Afrotropical, Indomalayan, and partly the Australasian and Oceanic ecozones.

„Tropicality“ refers to the geographic imagery that many people outside the tropics have of that region. The idea of tropicality gained renewed interest in modern geographical discourse when French geographer Pierre Gourou published Les Pays Tropicaux (The Tropical World, in English), in the late 1940s.

Tropicality encompasses at least two contradictory imageries. One is that the tropics represent a Garden of Eden, a heaven on Earth; while the alternative is that the tropics are primitive and essentially lawless. The latter view was often discussed in Western literature—more so than the first.

Western scholars also theorized about the reasons that tropical areas were deemed „inferior“ to regions in the northern hemisphere. A popular explanation focussed on the differences in climate—as tropical regions typically have much warmer weather than northern regions. This theme led some scholars, including Gourou, to argue that warmer climates correlate to primitive indigenous populations lacking control over nature, compared to northern populations having „mastered nature“.

A Morpho peleides (Blue Morpho) tropical butterfly

A Graphium agamemnon (Tailed Jay) belongs to the swallowtail family

Tropical fish in Indonesia

1990 Coca-Cola 600

The 1990 Coca-Cola 600, the 31st running of the event, was a NASCAR Winston Cup Series race held on May 27, 1990 at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Charlotte, North Carolina. Contested over 400 laps on the 1.5 mile (2.4 km) speedway, it was the 10th race of the 1990 NASCAR Winston Cup Series season. Rusty Wallace of Blue Max Racing won the race.

Charlotte Motor Speedway is a motorsports complex located in Concord, North Carolina, United States 13 miles from Charlotte, North Carolina. The complex features a 1.5 miles (2.4 km) quad oval track that hosts NASCAR racing including the prestigious Coca-Cola 600 on Memorial Day weekend and the The Winston, as well as the Mello Yello 500. The speedway was built in 1959 by Bruton Smith and is considered the home track for NASCAR with many race teams located in the Charlotte area. The track is owned and operated by Speedway Motorsports Inc. (SMI).

Rusty Wallace emerged from early season mediocrity to announce his return to dominance with a shootout win over Bill Elliott. Wallace led 306 of the 400 laps for his first win of the season, resuming his final lead on lap 310 when Geoff Bodine made a green-flag pit stop. A two-lap caution beginning on lap 297 set up the duel between Wallace and Elliott, who had regained a lap he lost early in the race.

Sidet trønder- og nordlandsfe

Sidet trønder- og nordlandsfe (forkortet STN) er en tradisjonell norsk storferase med opprinnelse og kjerneområde i Trøndelagsområdet (inkludert indre/nordre Nordmøre og Nord-Østerdalen) og Nordland.

Det svartsidete, kollete feet rundt Røros ble valgt ut som det mest opprinnelige og rene, og egnet som en fjellkurase for Trøndelagsdistriktet da stedegenhetslæra slo igjennom som avlssyn rundt 1900. Derav også navnet «rørosfe». Navnet sidet er en type fargefordeling som er vanlig i de tradisjonelle nordiske ferasene. Det som har gitt opphavet til denne betegnelsen er at sidene har en annen farge enn kroppen.

I Nord-Norge var feet i utgangspunktet mer uensartet enn i Trøndelag. Det var mye svartsidete og røde dyr, og også hornete individer. Det var stor uenighet om hvilken rasestandard man skulle velge, men valget falt til slutt på den svartsidete typen det ble satset på i Trøndelag. Ved dette valget fikk man fordelen ved å få et stort enhetlig avlsområde for rasen.

Sidet trønderfe og nordlandsfe (STN) ble regnet som samme rase fra 1920-årene.

STN er en melke- og kombinasjonsrase tilpasset forholdene i dal- og fjellbygdene. Kyrne har en gjennomsnittlig levendevekt på snaut 450 kg. Dyra er i dag naturlig kollet, og fargen er oftest svartsidet, men rødsidete og brannsidete dyr kan også forekomme.

Det kan være stor forskjell i forholdet mellom svart og hvitt, alt fra nesten svart med hvit stripe over ryggen, til nesten hvite dyr med få svarte dropler (punkter) på sidene. Rasen er som oftest sort eller farget rundt øyne, ører og på mulen. STN-kua er finlemmet, godlynt og kjent for å ta seg lett fram i terrenget.

Dyra er tidlig kjønnsmodne og kyrne viser god brunst. Produksjonen på første kalven er som regel moderat, men øker med alderen.

Gjennomsnittlig årsavdrått på kyr registrert i Husdyrkontrollen er i underkant av 4000 kg. Melka har et fettinnhold på 4,2 % og proteininnhold på 3,5 %.

Det finnes i dag cirka 1000 renrasede kyr.